glibmm  2.74.0
Public Types | Public Member Functions | Static Public Attributes | Related Functions | List of all members
Glib::ustring Class Reference

Glib::ustring has much the same interface as std::string, but contains Unicode characters encoded as UTF-8. More...

#include <glibmm/ustring.h>

Inheritance diagram for Glib::ustring:
Inheritance graph
[legend]

Public Types

using size_type = std::string::size_type
 
using difference_type = std::string::difference_type
 
using value_type = gunichar
 
using reference = gunichar &
 
using const_reference = const gunichar &
 
using iterator = ustring_Iterator< std::string::iterator >
 
using const_iterator = ustring_Iterator< std::string::const_iterator >
 
using reverse_iterator = std::reverse_iterator< iterator >
 
using const_reverse_iterator = std::reverse_iterator< const_iterator >
 

Public Member Functions

 ustring ()
 
 ~ustring () noexcept
 
 ustring (const ustring & other)
 
 ustring (ustring && other)
 
ustringoperator= (const ustring & other)
 
ustringoperator= (ustring && other)
 
void swap (ustring & other)
 
 ustring (const std::string & src)
 
 ustring (std::string && src)
 
 ustring (const ustring & src, size_type i, size_type n=npos)
 
 ustring (const char * src, size_type n)
 
 ustring (const char * src)
 
 ustring (size_type n, gunichar uc)
 
 ustring (size_type n, char c)
 
template<class In >
 ustring (In pbegin, In pend)
 
Assign new contents.
ustringoperator= (const std::string & src)
 
ustringoperator= (std::string && src)
 
ustringoperator= (const char * src)
 
ustringoperator= (gunichar uc)
 
ustringoperator= (char c)
 
ustringassign (const ustring & src)
 
ustringassign (ustring && src)
 
ustringassign (const ustring & src, size_type i, size_type n)
 
ustringassign (const char * src, size_type n)
 
ustringassign (const char * src)
 
ustringassign (size_type n, gunichar uc)
 
ustringassign (size_type n, char c)
 
template<class In >
ustringassign (In pbegin, In pend)
 
Append to the string.
ustringoperator+= (const ustring & src)
 
ustringoperator+= (const char * src)
 
ustringoperator+= (gunichar uc)
 
ustringoperator+= (char c)
 
void push_back (gunichar uc)
 
void push_back (char c)
 
ustringappend (const ustring & src)
 
ustringappend (const ustring & src, size_type i, size_type n)
 
ustringappend (const char * src, size_type n)
 
ustringappend (const char * src)
 
ustringappend (size_type n, gunichar uc)
 
ustringappend (size_type n, char c)
 
template<class In >
ustringappend (In pbegin, In pend)
 
Insert into the string.
ustringinsert (size_type i, const ustring & src)
 
ustringinsert (size_type i, const ustring & src, size_type i2, size_type n)
 
ustringinsert (size_type i, const char * src, size_type n)
 
ustringinsert (size_type i, const char * src)
 
ustringinsert (size_type i, size_type n, gunichar uc)
 
ustringinsert (size_type i, size_type n, char c)
 
iterator insert (iterator p, gunichar uc)
 
iterator insert (iterator p, char c)
 
void insert (iterator p, size_type n, gunichar uc)
 
void insert (iterator p, size_type n, char c)
 
template<class In >
void insert (iterator p, In pbegin, In pend)
 
Replace sub-strings.
ustringreplace (size_type i, size_type n, const ustring & src)
 
ustringreplace (size_type i, size_type n, const ustring & src, size_type i2, size_type n2)
 
ustringreplace (size_type i, size_type n, const char * src, size_type n2)
 
ustringreplace (size_type i, size_type n, const char * src)
 
ustringreplace (size_type i, size_type n, size_type n2, gunichar uc)
 
ustringreplace (size_type i, size_type n, size_type n2, char c)
 
ustringreplace (iterator pbegin, iterator pend, const ustring & src)
 
ustringreplace (iterator pbegin, iterator pend, const char * src, size_type n)
 
ustringreplace (iterator pbegin, iterator pend, const char * src)
 
ustringreplace (iterator pbegin, iterator pend, size_type n, gunichar uc)
 
ustringreplace (iterator pbegin, iterator pend, size_type n, char c)
 
template<class In >
ustringreplace (iterator pbegin, iterator pend, In pbegin2, In pend2)
 
Erase sub-strings.
void clear ()
 
ustringerase (size_type i, size_type n=npos)
 
ustringerase ()
 
iterator erase (iterator p)
 
iterator erase (iterator pbegin, iterator pend)
 
Compare and collate.
int compare (UStringView rhs) const
 
int compare (size_type i, size_type n, UStringView rhs) const
 
int compare (size_type i, size_type n, const ustring & rhs, size_type i2, size_type n2) const
 
int compare (size_type i, size_type n, const char * rhs, size_type n2) const
 
std::string collate_key () const
 
std::string casefold_collate_key () const
 
Extract characters and sub-strings.
value_type operator[] (size_type i) const
 
value_type at (size_type i) const
 
ustring substr (size_type i=0, size_type n=npos) const
 
Access a sequence of characters.
iterator begin ()
 
iterator end ()
 
const_iterator begin () const
 
const_iterator end () const
 
reverse_iterator rbegin ()
 
reverse_iterator rend ()
 
const_reverse_iterator rbegin () const
 
const_reverse_iterator rend () const
 
const_iterator cbegin () const
 
const_iterator cend () const
 
Find sub-strings.
size_type find (const ustring & str, size_type i=0) const
 
size_type find (const char * str, size_type i, size_type n) const
 
size_type find (const char * str, size_type i=0) const
 
size_type find (gunichar uc, size_type i=0) const
 
size_type find (char c, size_type i=0) const
 
size_type rfind (const ustring & str, size_type i=npos) const
 
size_type rfind (const char * str, size_type i, size_type n) const
 
size_type rfind (const char * str, size_type i=npos) const
 
size_type rfind (gunichar uc, size_type i=npos) const
 
size_type rfind (char c, size_type i=npos) const
 
Match against a set of characters.
size_type find_first_of (const ustring & match, size_type i=0) const
 
size_type find_first_of (const char * match, size_type i, size_type n) const
 
size_type find_first_of (const char * match, size_type i=0) const
 
size_type find_first_of (gunichar uc, size_type i=0) const
 
size_type find_first_of (char c, size_type i=0) const
 
size_type find_last_of (const ustring & match, size_type i=npos) const
 
size_type find_last_of (const char * match, size_type i, size_type n) const
 
size_type find_last_of (const char * match, size_type i=npos) const
 
size_type find_last_of (gunichar uc, size_type i=npos) const
 
size_type find_last_of (char c, size_type i=npos) const
 
size_type find_first_not_of (const ustring & match, size_type i=0) const
 
size_type find_first_not_of (const char * match, size_type i, size_type n) const
 
size_type find_first_not_of (const char * match, size_type i=0) const
 
size_type find_first_not_of (gunichar uc, size_type i=0) const
 
size_type find_first_not_of (char c, size_type i=0) const
 
size_type find_last_not_of (const ustring & match, size_type i=npos) const
 
size_type find_last_not_of (const char * match, size_type i, size_type n) const
 
size_type find_last_not_of (const char * match, size_type i=npos) const
 
size_type find_last_not_of (gunichar uc, size_type i=npos) const
 
size_type find_last_not_of (char c, size_type i=npos) const
 
Retrieve the string's size.
bool empty () const
 Returns true if the string is empty. More...
 
size_type size () const
 Returns the number of characters in the string, not including any null-termination. More...
 
size_type length () const
 This is the same as size(). More...
 
size_type bytes () const
 Returns the number of bytes in the string, not including any null-termination. More...
 
Change the string's size.
void resize (size_type n, gunichar uc)
 
void resize (size_type n, char c='\0')
 
Control the allocated memory.
size_type capacity () const
 
size_type max_size () const
 
void reserve (size_type n=0)
 
Get a per-byte representation of the string.
 operator std::string () const
 
const std::stringraw () const
 
std::string release ()
 
const char * data () const
 
const char * c_str () const
 
size_type copy (char * dest, size_type n, size_type i=0) const
 
UTF-8 utilities.
bool validate () const
 
bool validate (iterator & first_invalid)
 
bool validate (const_iterator & first_invalid) const
 
ustring make_valid () const
 
bool is_ascii () const
 
ustring normalize (NormalizeMode mode=NormalizeMode::DEFAULT_COMPOSE) const
 
Character case conversion.
ustring uppercase () const
 
ustring lowercase () const
 
ustring casefold () const
 

Static Public Member Functions

Message formatting.
static ustring compose (const ustring & fmt)
 
template<class... Ts>
static ustring compose (const ustring & fmt, const Ts &... args)
 
template<class... Ts>
static ustring format (const Ts &... args)
 
template<class... Ts>
static ustring sprintf (const ustring & fmt, const Ts &... args)
 
template<class... Ts>
static ustring sprintf (const char * fmt, const Ts &... args)
 
static ustring sprintf (const ustring & fmt)
 
static ustring sprintf (const char * fmt)
 

Static Public Attributes

static const size_type npos = std::string::npos
 

Related Functions

(Note that these are not member functions.)

std::istreamoperator>> (std::istream & is, Glib::ustring & utf8_string)
 Stream input operator. More...
 
std::ostreamoperator<< (std::ostream & os, const Glib::ustring & utf8_string)
 Stream output operator. More...
 
std::wistreamoperator>> (std::wistream & is, ustring & utf8_string)
 Wide stream input operator. More...
 
std::wostreamoperator<< (std::wostream & os, const ustring & utf8_string)
 Wide stream output operator. More...
 
void swap (ustring & lhs, ustring & rhs)
 
template<typename T , typename = std::enable_if_t<!std::is_base_of_v<ustring, T>>>
bool operator== (const ustring & lhs, const T & rhs)
 
bool operator== (UStringView lhs, const ustring & rhs)
 
template<typename T , typename = std::enable_if_t<!std::is_base_of_v<ustring, T>>>
bool operator!= (const ustring & lhs, const T & rhs)
 
bool operator!= (UStringView lhs, const ustring & rhs)
 
template<typename T , typename = std::enable_if_t<!std::is_base_of_v<ustring, T>>>
bool operator< (const ustring & lhs, const T & rhs)
 
bool operator< (UStringView lhs, const ustring & rhs)
 
template<typename T , typename = std::enable_if_t<!std::is_base_of_v<ustring, T>>>
bool operator> (const ustring & lhs, const T & rhs)
 
bool operator> (UStringView lhs, const ustring & rhs)
 
template<typename T , typename = std::enable_if_t<!std::is_base_of_v<ustring, T>>>
bool operator<= (const ustring & lhs, const T & rhs)
 
bool operator<= (UStringView lhs, const ustring & rhs)
 
template<typename T , typename = std::enable_if_t<!std::is_base_of_v<ustring, T>>>
bool operator>= (const ustring & lhs, const T & rhs)
 
bool operator>= (UStringView lhs, const ustring & rhs)
 
ustring operator+ (const ustring & lhs, const ustring & rhs)
 
ustring operator+ (const ustring & lhs, const char * rhs)
 
ustring operator+ (const char * lhs, const ustring & rhs)
 
ustring operator+ (const ustring & lhs, gunichar rhs)
 
ustring operator+ (gunichar lhs, const ustring & rhs)
 
ustring operator+ (const ustring & lhs, char rhs)
 
ustring operator+ (char lhs, const ustring & rhs)
 

Detailed Description

Glib::ustring has much the same interface as std::string, but contains Unicode characters encoded as UTF-8.

About UTF-8 and ASCII
The standard character set ANSI_X3.4-1968 – more commonly known as ASCII – is a subset of UTF-8. So, if you want to, you can use Glib::ustring without even thinking about UTF-8.
Whenever ASCII is mentioned in this manual, we mean the real ASCII (i.e. as defined in ANSI_X3.4-1968), which contains only 7-bit characters. Glib::ustring can not be used with ASCII-compatible extended 8-bit charsets like ISO-8859-1. It's a good idea to avoid string literals containing non-ASCII characters (e.g. German umlauts) in source code, or at least you should use UTF-8 literals.
You can find a detailed UTF-8 and Unicode FAQ here: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/unicode.html
Glib::ustring vs. std::string
Glib::ustring has implicit type conversions to and from std::string. These conversions do not convert to/from the current locale (see Glib::locale_from_utf8() and Glib::locale_to_utf8() if you need that). You can always use std::string instead of Glib::ustring – however, using std::string with multi-byte characters is quite hard. For instance, std::string::operator[] might return a byte in the middle of a character, and std::string::length() returns the number of bytes rather than characters. So don't do that without a good reason.
You cannot always use Glib::ustring instead of std::string.
Glib::ustring u("a_string_with_underscores");
std::replace(u.begin(), u.end(), '_', ' '); // does not compile
constexpr void replace(_ForwardIterator __first, _ForwardIterator __last, const _Tp &__old_value, const _Tp &__new_value)
Glib::ustring has much the same interface as std::string, but contains Unicode characters encoded as ...
Definition: ustring.h:322
You can't use a Glib::ustring::iterator for writing to a Glib::ustring. See the documentation of Glib::ustring_Iterator for differences between it and std::string::iterator.
Many member functions and operators of Glib::ustring and Glib::ustring_Iterator assume that the string contains only valid UTF-8 data. If it does not, memory outside the bounds of the string can be accessed. If you're uncertain, use validate() and/or make_valid().
In a perfect world the C++ Standard Library would contain a UTF-8 string class. Unfortunately, the C++98 standard doesn't mention UTF-8 at all. C++11 has UTF-8 literals but no UTF-8 string class. Note that std::wstring is not a UTF-8 string class because it contains only fixed-width characters (where width could be 32, 16, or even 8 bits).
Glib::ustring and stream input/output
The stream I/O operators, that is operator<<() and operator>>(), perform implicit charset conversion to/from the current locale. If that's not what you intended (e.g. when writing to a configuration file that should always be UTF-8 encoded) use ustring::raw() to override this behaviour.
If you're using std::ostringstream to build strings for display in the user interface, you must convert the result back to UTF-8 as shown below:
std::locale::global(std::locale("")); // Set the global locale to the user's preferred locale.
// Usually unnecessary here, because Glib::init()
// does it for you.
output << percentage << " % done";
label->set_text(Glib::locale_to_utf8(output.str()));
__string_type str() const
static locale global(const locale &__loc)
Glib::ustring locale_to_utf8(const std::string &opsys_string)
Convert from the current locale's encoding to UTF-8.
Formatted output and internationalization
The methods ustring::compose() and ustring::format() provide a convenient and powerful alternative to string streams, as shown in the example below. Refer to the method documentation of compose() and format() for details.
ustring message = ustring::compose("%1 is lower than 0x%2.",
ios_base & hex(ios_base &__base)
static ustring compose(const ustring &fmt)
static ustring format(const Ts &... args)
Implementation notes
Glib::ustring does not inherit from std::string, because std::string was intended to be a final class. For instance, it does not have a virtual destructor. Also, a HAS-A relationship is more appropriate because ustring can't just enhance the std::string interface. Rather, it has to reimplement the interface so that all operations are based on characters instead of bytes.

Member Typedef Documentation

◆ const_iterator

using Glib::ustring::const_iterator = ustring_Iterator<std::string::const_iterator>

◆ const_reference

using Glib::ustring::const_reference = const gunichar&

◆ const_reverse_iterator

◆ difference_type

using Glib::ustring::difference_type = std::string::difference_type

◆ iterator

using Glib::ustring::iterator = ustring_Iterator<std::string::iterator>

◆ reference

using Glib::ustring::reference = gunichar&

◆ reverse_iterator

◆ size_type

using Glib::ustring::size_type = std::string::size_type

◆ value_type

using Glib::ustring::value_type = gunichar

Constructor & Destructor Documentation

◆ ustring() [1/11]

Glib::ustring::ustring ( )

Default constructor, which creates an empty string.

◆ ~ustring()

Glib::ustring::~ustring ( )
noexcept

◆ ustring() [2/11]

Glib::ustring::ustring ( const ustring other)

Construct a ustring as a copy of another ustring.

Parameters
otherA source string.

◆ ustring() [3/11]

Glib::ustring::ustring ( ustring &&  other)

Construct a ustring by moving from another ustring.

Parameters
otherA source string.

◆ ustring() [4/11]

Glib::ustring::ustring ( const std::string src)

Construct a ustring as a copy of a std::string.

Parameters
srcA source std::string containing text encoded as UTF-8.

◆ ustring() [5/11]

Glib::ustring::ustring ( std::string &&  src)

Construct a ustring by moving from a std::string.

Parameters
srcA source std::string containing text encoded as UTF-8.

◆ ustring() [6/11]

Glib::ustring::ustring ( const ustring src,
size_type  i,
size_type  n = npos 
)

Construct a ustring as a copy of a substring.

Parameters
srcSource ustring.
iIndex of first character to copy from.
nNumber of UTF-8 characters to copy (defaults to copying the remainder).

◆ ustring() [7/11]

Glib::ustring::ustring ( const char *  src,
size_type  n 
)

Construct a ustring as a partial copy of a C string.

Parameters
srcSource C string encoded as UTF-8.
nNumber of UTF-8 characters to copy.

◆ ustring() [8/11]

Glib::ustring::ustring ( const char *  src)

Construct a ustring as a copy of a C string.

Parameters
srcSource C string encoded as UTF-8.

◆ ustring() [9/11]

Glib::ustring::ustring ( size_type  n,
gunichar  uc 
)

Construct a ustring as multiple characters.

Parameters
nNumber of characters.
ucUCS-4 code point to use.

◆ ustring() [10/11]

Glib::ustring::ustring ( size_type  n,
char  c 
)

Construct a ustring as multiple characters.

Parameters
nNumber of characters.
cASCII character to use.

◆ ustring() [11/11]

template <class In >
Glib::ustring::ustring ( In  pbegin,
In  pend 
)

Construct a ustring as a copy of a range.

Parameters
pbeginStart of range.
pendEnd of range.

Member Function Documentation

◆ append() [1/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::append ( const char *  src)

◆ append() [2/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::append ( const char *  src,
size_type  n 
)

◆ append() [3/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::append ( const ustring src)

◆ append() [4/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::append ( const ustring src,
size_type  i,
size_type  n 
)

◆ append() [5/7]

template <class In >
ustring& Glib::ustring::append ( In  pbegin,
In  pend 
)

◆ append() [6/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::append ( size_type  n,
char  c 
)

◆ append() [7/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::append ( size_type  n,
gunichar  uc 
)

◆ assign() [1/8]

ustring& Glib::ustring::assign ( const char *  src)

◆ assign() [2/8]

ustring& Glib::ustring::assign ( const char *  src,
size_type  n 
)

◆ assign() [3/8]

ustring& Glib::ustring::assign ( const ustring src)

◆ assign() [4/8]

ustring& Glib::ustring::assign ( const ustring src,
size_type  i,
size_type  n 
)

◆ assign() [5/8]

template <class In >
ustring& Glib::ustring::assign ( In  pbegin,
In  pend 
)

◆ assign() [6/8]

ustring& Glib::ustring::assign ( size_type  n,
char  c 
)

◆ assign() [7/8]

ustring& Glib::ustring::assign ( size_type  n,
gunichar  uc 
)

◆ assign() [8/8]

ustring& Glib::ustring::assign ( ustring &&  src)

◆ at()

value_type Glib::ustring::at ( size_type  i) const

No reference return; use replace() to write characters.

Exceptions
std::out_of_range

◆ begin() [1/2]

iterator Glib::ustring::begin ( )

◆ begin() [2/2]

const_iterator Glib::ustring::begin ( ) const

◆ bytes()

size_type Glib::ustring::bytes ( ) const

Returns the number of bytes in the string, not including any null-termination.

Returns
The number of bytes.
See also
size(), empty()

◆ c_str()

const char* Glib::ustring::c_str ( ) const

◆ capacity()

size_type Glib::ustring::capacity ( ) const

◆ casefold()

ustring Glib::ustring::casefold ( ) const

Returns a caseless representation of the UTF-8 string. The resulting string doesn't correspond to any particular case, therefore the result is only useful to compare strings and should never be displayed to the user.

◆ casefold_collate_key()

std::string Glib::ustring::casefold_collate_key ( ) const

Create a unique key for the UTF-8 string that can be used for caseless sorting. ustr.casefold_collate_key() results in the same string as ustr.casefold().collate_key(), but the former is likely more efficient.

◆ cbegin()

const_iterator Glib::ustring::cbegin ( ) const

◆ cend()

const_iterator Glib::ustring::cend ( ) const

◆ clear()

void Glib::ustring::clear ( )

◆ collate_key()

std::string Glib::ustring::collate_key ( ) const

Create a unique sorting key for the UTF-8 string. If you need to compare UTF-8 strings regularly, e.g. for sorted containers such as std::set<>, you should consider creating a collate key first and compare this key instead of the actual string.

The ustring::compare() methods as well as the relational operators == != < > <= >= are quite costly because they have to deal with Unicode and the collation rules defined by the current locale. Converting both operands to UCS-4 is just the first of several costly steps involved when comparing ustrings. So be careful.

◆ compare() [1/4]

int Glib::ustring::compare ( size_type  i,
size_type  n,
const char *  rhs,
size_type  n2 
) const

◆ compare() [2/4]

int Glib::ustring::compare ( size_type  i,
size_type  n,
const ustring rhs,
size_type  i2,
size_type  n2 
) const

◆ compare() [3/4]

int Glib::ustring::compare ( size_type  i,
size_type  n,
UStringView  rhs 
) const

◆ compare() [4/4]

int Glib::ustring::compare ( UStringView  rhs) const

◆ compose() [1/2]

static ustring Glib::ustring::compose ( const ustring fmt)
inlinestatic

◆ compose() [2/2]

template <class... Ts>
static ustring Glib::ustring::compose ( const ustring fmt,
const Ts &...  args 
)
inlinestatic

Substitute placeholders in a format string with the referenced arguments.

The template string uses a similar format to Qt’s QString class, in that %1, %2, and so on to %9 are used as placeholders to be substituted with the string representation of the args 1–9, while %% inserts a literal % in the output. Placeholders do not have to appear in the same order as their corresponding function arguments.

Example:
const int percentage = 50;
const ustring text = ustring::compose("%1%% done", percentage);
Parameters
fmtThe template string, in the format described above.
args1 to 9 arguments to substitute for %1 to %9 respectively.
Returns
The substituted message string.
Exceptions
Glib::ConvertError
Since glibmm 2.58:

◆ copy()

size_type Glib::ustring::copy ( char *  dest,
size_type  n,
size_type  i = 0 
) const
Returns
Number of copied bytes, not characters.

◆ data()

const char* Glib::ustring::data ( ) const

◆ empty()

bool Glib::ustring::empty ( ) const

Returns true if the string is empty.

Equivalent to *this == "".

Returns
Whether the string is empty.

◆ end() [1/2]

iterator Glib::ustring::end ( )

◆ end() [2/2]

const_iterator Glib::ustring::end ( ) const

◆ erase() [1/4]

ustring& Glib::ustring::erase ( )

◆ erase() [2/4]

iterator Glib::ustring::erase ( iterator  p)

◆ erase() [3/4]

iterator Glib::ustring::erase ( iterator  pbegin,
iterator  pend 
)

◆ erase() [4/4]

ustring& Glib::ustring::erase ( size_type  i,
size_type  n = npos 
)

◆ find() [1/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find ( char  c,
size_type  i = 0 
) const

◆ find() [2/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find ( const char *  str,
size_type  i,
size_type  n 
) const

◆ find() [3/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find ( const char *  str,
size_type  i = 0 
) const

◆ find() [4/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find ( const ustring str,
size_type  i = 0 
) const

◆ find() [5/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find ( gunichar  uc,
size_type  i = 0 
) const

◆ find_first_not_of() [1/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_first_not_of ( char  c,
size_type  i = 0 
) const

◆ find_first_not_of() [2/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_first_not_of ( const char *  match,
size_type  i,
size_type  n 
) const

◆ find_first_not_of() [3/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_first_not_of ( const char *  match,
size_type  i = 0 
) const

◆ find_first_not_of() [4/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_first_not_of ( const ustring match,
size_type  i = 0 
) const

◆ find_first_not_of() [5/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_first_not_of ( gunichar  uc,
size_type  i = 0 
) const

◆ find_first_of() [1/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_first_of ( char  c,
size_type  i = 0 
) const

◆ find_first_of() [2/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_first_of ( const char *  match,
size_type  i,
size_type  n 
) const

◆ find_first_of() [3/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_first_of ( const char *  match,
size_type  i = 0 
) const

◆ find_first_of() [4/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_first_of ( const ustring match,
size_type  i = 0 
) const

◆ find_first_of() [5/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_first_of ( gunichar  uc,
size_type  i = 0 
) const

◆ find_last_not_of() [1/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_last_not_of ( char  c,
size_type  i = npos 
) const

◆ find_last_not_of() [2/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_last_not_of ( const char *  match,
size_type  i,
size_type  n 
) const

◆ find_last_not_of() [3/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_last_not_of ( const char *  match,
size_type  i = npos 
) const

◆ find_last_not_of() [4/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_last_not_of ( const ustring match,
size_type  i = npos 
) const

◆ find_last_not_of() [5/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_last_not_of ( gunichar  uc,
size_type  i = npos 
) const

◆ find_last_of() [1/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_last_of ( char  c,
size_type  i = npos 
) const

◆ find_last_of() [2/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_last_of ( const char *  match,
size_type  i,
size_type  n 
) const

◆ find_last_of() [3/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_last_of ( const char *  match,
size_type  i = npos 
) const

◆ find_last_of() [4/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_last_of ( const ustring match,
size_type  i = npos 
) const

◆ find_last_of() [5/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::find_last_of ( gunichar  uc,
size_type  i = npos 
) const

◆ format()

template <class... Ts>
static ustring Glib::ustring::format ( const Ts &...  args)
inlinestatic

Format the argument(s) to a string representation.

Applies the arguments in order to an std::wostringstream and returns the resulting string. I/O manipulators may also be used as arguments. This greatly simplifies the common task of converting a number to a string, as demonstrated by the example below. The format() methods can also be used in conjunction with compose() to facilitate localization of user-visible messages.

double value = 22.0 / 7.0;
_Setprecision setprecision(int __n)
ios_base & fixed(ios_base &__base)
Note
The use of a wide character stream in the implementation of format() is almost completely transparent. However, one of the instances where the use of wide streams becomes visible is when the std::setfill() stream manipulator is used. In order for std::setfill() to work the argument must be of type wchar_t. This can be achieved by using the L prefix with a character literal, as shown in the example.
// Insert leading zeroes to fill in at least six digits
_Setw setw(int __n)
_Setfill< _CharT > setfill(_CharT __c)
Parameters
argsOne or more streamable values or I/O manipulators.
Returns
The string representation of the argument stream.
Exceptions
Glib::ConvertError
Since glibmm 2.58:

◆ insert() [1/11]

iterator Glib::ustring::insert ( iterator  p,
char  c 
)

◆ insert() [2/11]

iterator Glib::ustring::insert ( iterator  p,
gunichar  uc 
)

◆ insert() [3/11]

template <class In >
void Glib::ustring::insert ( iterator  p,
In  pbegin,
In  pend 
)

◆ insert() [4/11]

void Glib::ustring::insert ( iterator  p,
size_type  n,
char  c 
)

◆ insert() [5/11]

void Glib::ustring::insert ( iterator  p,
size_type  n,
gunichar  uc 
)

◆ insert() [6/11]

ustring& Glib::ustring::insert ( size_type  i,
const char *  src 
)

◆ insert() [7/11]

ustring& Glib::ustring::insert ( size_type  i,
const char *  src,
size_type  n 
)

◆ insert() [8/11]

ustring& Glib::ustring::insert ( size_type  i,
const ustring src 
)

◆ insert() [9/11]

ustring& Glib::ustring::insert ( size_type  i,
const ustring src,
size_type  i2,
size_type  n 
)

◆ insert() [10/11]

ustring& Glib::ustring::insert ( size_type  i,
size_type  n,
char  c 
)

◆ insert() [11/11]

ustring& Glib::ustring::insert ( size_type  i,
size_type  n,
gunichar  uc 
)

◆ is_ascii()

bool Glib::ustring::is_ascii ( ) const

Check whether the string is plain 7-bit ASCII.

Unlike any other ustring method, is_ascii() is safe to use on invalid UTF-8 strings. If the string isn't valid UTF-8, it cannot be valid ASCII either, therefore is_ascii() will just return false then.
Returns
Whether the string contains only ASCII characters.

◆ length()

size_type Glib::ustring::length ( ) const

This is the same as size().

◆ lowercase()

ustring Glib::ustring::lowercase ( ) const

Returns a new UTF-8 string with all characters characters converted to their lowercase equivalent, while honoring the current locale. The resulting string may change in the number of bytes as well as in the number of characters.

◆ make_valid()

ustring Glib::ustring::make_valid ( ) const

Return a copy that is a valid UTF-8 string replacing invalid bytes in the original with Unicode replacement character (U+FFFD). If the string is valid, return a copy of it.

◆ max_size()

size_type Glib::ustring::max_size ( ) const

◆ normalize()

ustring Glib::ustring::normalize ( NormalizeMode  mode = NormalizeMode::DEFAULT_COMPOSE) const

"Normalize" the Unicode character representation of the string.

◆ operator std::string()

Glib::ustring::operator std::string ( ) const
inline

◆ operator+=() [1/4]

ustring& Glib::ustring::operator+= ( char  c)

◆ operator+=() [2/4]

ustring& Glib::ustring::operator+= ( const char *  src)

◆ operator+=() [3/4]

ustring& Glib::ustring::operator+= ( const ustring src)

◆ operator+=() [4/4]

ustring& Glib::ustring::operator+= ( gunichar  uc)

◆ operator=() [1/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::operator= ( char  c)

◆ operator=() [2/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::operator= ( const char *  src)

◆ operator=() [3/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::operator= ( const std::string src)

◆ operator=() [4/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::operator= ( const ustring other)

Assign the value of another string by copying to this string.

Parameters
otherA source string.

◆ operator=() [5/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::operator= ( gunichar  uc)

◆ operator=() [6/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::operator= ( std::string &&  src)

◆ operator=() [7/7]

ustring& Glib::ustring::operator= ( ustring &&  other)

Assign the value of another string by moving to this string.

Parameters
otherA source string.

◆ operator[]()

value_type Glib::ustring::operator[] ( size_type  i) const

No reference return; use replace() to write characters.

◆ push_back() [1/2]

void Glib::ustring::push_back ( char  c)

◆ push_back() [2/2]

void Glib::ustring::push_back ( gunichar  uc)

◆ raw()

const std::string& Glib::ustring::raw ( ) const
inline

◆ rbegin() [1/2]

reverse_iterator Glib::ustring::rbegin ( )

◆ rbegin() [2/2]

const_reverse_iterator Glib::ustring::rbegin ( ) const

◆ release()

std::string Glib::ustring::release ( )
inline

Return the stored string, moved from the ustring.

Since glibmm 2.74:

◆ rend() [1/2]

reverse_iterator Glib::ustring::rend ( )

◆ rend() [2/2]

const_reverse_iterator Glib::ustring::rend ( ) const

◆ replace() [1/12]

ustring& Glib::ustring::replace ( iterator  pbegin,
iterator  pend,
const char *  src 
)

◆ replace() [2/12]

ustring& Glib::ustring::replace ( iterator  pbegin,
iterator  pend,
const char *  src,
size_type  n 
)

◆ replace() [3/12]

ustring& Glib::ustring::replace ( iterator  pbegin,
iterator  pend,
const ustring src 
)

◆ replace() [4/12]

template <class In >
ustring& Glib::ustring::replace ( iterator  pbegin,
iterator  pend,
In  pbegin2,
In  pend2 
)

◆ replace() [5/12]

ustring& Glib::ustring::replace ( iterator  pbegin,
iterator  pend,
size_type  n,
char  c 
)

◆ replace() [6/12]

ustring& Glib::ustring::replace ( iterator  pbegin,
iterator  pend,
size_type  n,
gunichar  uc 
)

◆ replace() [7/12]

ustring& Glib::ustring::replace ( size_type  i,
size_type  n,
const char *  src 
)

◆ replace() [8/12]

ustring& Glib::ustring::replace ( size_type  i,
size_type  n,
const char *  src,
size_type  n2 
)

◆ replace() [9/12]

ustring& Glib::ustring::replace ( size_type  i,
size_type  n,
const ustring src 
)

◆ replace() [10/12]

ustring& Glib::ustring::replace ( size_type  i,
size_type  n,
const ustring src,
size_type  i2,
size_type  n2 
)

◆ replace() [11/12]

ustring& Glib::ustring::replace ( size_type  i,
size_type  n,
size_type  n2,
char  c 
)

◆ replace() [12/12]

ustring& Glib::ustring::replace ( size_type  i,
size_type  n,
size_type  n2,
gunichar  uc 
)

◆ reserve()

void Glib::ustring::reserve ( size_type  n = 0)

◆ resize() [1/2]

void Glib::ustring::resize ( size_type  n,
char  c = '\0' 
)

◆ resize() [2/2]

void Glib::ustring::resize ( size_type  n,
gunichar  uc 
)

◆ rfind() [1/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::rfind ( char  c,
size_type  i = npos 
) const

◆ rfind() [2/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::rfind ( const char *  str,
size_type  i,
size_type  n 
) const

◆ rfind() [3/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::rfind ( const char *  str,
size_type  i = npos 
) const

◆ rfind() [4/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::rfind ( const ustring str,
size_type  i = npos 
) const

◆ rfind() [5/5]

size_type Glib::ustring::rfind ( gunichar  uc,
size_type  i = npos 
) const

◆ size()

size_type Glib::ustring::size ( ) const

Returns the number of characters in the string, not including any null-termination.

Returns
The number of UTF-8 characters.
See also
bytes(), empty()

◆ sprintf() [1/4]

static ustring Glib::ustring::sprintf ( const char *  fmt)
inlinestatic

Overload of sprintf() for a format string only, which returns it unchanged and avoids creating a temporary ustring as the argument.

Parameters
fmtThe string
Returns
The same string, as a ustring.
Since glibmm 2.62:

◆ sprintf() [2/4]

template <class... Ts>
static ustring Glib::ustring::sprintf ( const char *  fmt,
const Ts &...  args 
)
inlinestatic

Overload of sprintf() taking a string literal.

The main benefit of this is not constructing a temporary ustring if fmt is a string literal. A secondary effect is that it might encourage compilers to check if the given format fmt matches the variadic arguments args. The latter effect is a convenience at best; you must not rely on it to find errors in your code, as your compiler might not always be able to do so.

Parameters
fmtThe template string, in the format used by printf() et al.
argsA set of arguments having the count/types/order required by fmt.
Returns
The substituted string.
Since glibmm 2.62:

◆ sprintf() [3/4]

static ustring Glib::ustring::sprintf ( const ustring fmt)
inlinestatic

Overload of sprintf() for a format string only, which returns it unchanged.

If no args to be substituted are given, there is nothing to do, so the fmt string is returned as-is without substitution. This is an obvious case of mismatched format/args that we can check. Not doing so causes warnings/errors with common compiler options, as it is a security risk.

Parameters
fmtThe string
Returns
The same string.
Since glibmm 2.62:

◆ sprintf() [4/4]

template <class... Ts>
static ustring Glib::ustring::sprintf ( const ustring fmt,
const Ts &...  args 
)
inlinestatic

Substitute placeholders in a format string with the referenced arguments.

This function takes a template string in the format used by C’s printf() family of functions and an arbitrary number of arguments, replaces each placeholder in the template with the formatted version of its corresponding argument at the same ordinal position in the list of subsequent arguments, and returns the result in a new Glib::ustring.

Note: You must pass the correct count/types/order of arguments to match the format string, as when calling printf() directly. glibmm does not check this for you. Breaking this contract invokes undefined behavior and is a security risk.

The exception is that glibmm special-cases std::string and Glib::ustring, so you can pass them in positions corresponding to s placeholders without having to call their .c_str() functions; glibmm does that for you. glibmm also overloads sprintf() with fmt but no args to avoid risks.

Said restriction also makes sprintf() unsuitable for translatable strings, as translators cannot reorder the placeholders to suit their language. If you wish to support translation, you should instead use compose(), as its placeholders are numbered rather than ordinal, so they can be moved freely.

Example:
const auto greeting = std::string{"Hi"};
const auto name = Glib::ustring{"Dennis"};
const auto your_cows = 3;
const auto my_cows = 11;
const auto cow_percentage = 100.0 * your_cows / my_cows;
const auto text = Glib::ustring::sprintf(
"%s, %s! You have %d cows. That's about %0.2f%% of the %d cows I have.",
greeting, name, your_cows, cow_percentage, my_cows);
std::cout << text;
// Hi, Dennis! You have 3 cows. That's about 27.27% of the 11 cows I have.
ostream cout
static ustring sprintf(const ustring &fmt, const Ts &... args)
Parameters
fmtThe template string, in the format used by printf() et al.
argsA set of arguments having the count/types/order required by fmt.
Returns
The substituted string.
Since glibmm 2.62:

◆ substr()

ustring Glib::ustring::substr ( size_type  i = 0,
size_type  n = npos 
) const
inline

◆ swap()

void Glib::ustring::swap ( ustring other)

Swap contents with another string.

Parameters
otherString to swap with.

◆ uppercase()

ustring Glib::ustring::uppercase ( ) const

Returns a new UTF-8 string with all characters characters converted to their uppercase equivalent, while honoring the current locale. The resulting string may change in the number of bytes as well as in the number of characters. For instance, the German sharp s "ß" will be replaced by two characters "SS" because there is no capital "ß".

◆ validate() [1/3]

bool Glib::ustring::validate ( ) const

Check whether the string is valid UTF-8.

◆ validate() [2/3]

bool Glib::ustring::validate ( const_iterator first_invalid) const

Check whether the string is valid UTF-8.

◆ validate() [3/3]

bool Glib::ustring::validate ( iterator first_invalid)

Check whether the string is valid UTF-8.

Friends And Related Function Documentation

◆ operator!=() [1/2]

template <typename T , typename = std::enable_if_t<!std::is_base_of_v<ustring, T>>>
bool operator!= ( const ustring lhs,
const T &  rhs 
)
related

◆ operator!=() [2/2]

bool operator!= ( UStringView  lhs,
const ustring rhs 
)
related

◆ operator+() [1/7]

ustring operator+ ( char  lhs,
const ustring rhs 
)
related

◆ operator+() [2/7]

ustring operator+ ( const char *  lhs,
const ustring rhs 
)
related

◆ operator+() [3/7]

ustring operator+ ( const ustring lhs,
char  rhs 
)
related

◆ operator+() [4/7]

ustring operator+ ( const ustring lhs,
const char *  rhs 
)
related

◆ operator+() [5/7]

ustring operator+ ( const ustring lhs,
const ustring rhs 
)
related

◆ operator+() [6/7]

ustring operator+ ( const ustring lhs,
gunichar  rhs 
)
related

◆ operator+() [7/7]

ustring operator+ ( gunichar  lhs,
const ustring rhs 
)
related

◆ operator<() [1/2]

template <typename T , typename = std::enable_if_t<!std::is_base_of_v<ustring, T>>>
bool operator< ( const ustring lhs,
const T &  rhs 
)
related

◆ operator<() [2/2]

bool operator< ( UStringView  lhs,
const ustring rhs 
)
related

◆ operator<<() [1/2]

std::ostream & operator<< ( std::ostream os,
const Glib::ustring utf8_string 
)
related

Stream output operator.

Exceptions
Glib::ConvertError

◆ operator<<() [2/2]

std::wostream & operator<< ( std::wostream os,
const ustring utf8_string 
)
related

Wide stream output operator.

Exceptions
Glib::ConvertError

◆ operator<=() [1/2]

template <typename T , typename = std::enable_if_t<!std::is_base_of_v<ustring, T>>>
bool operator<= ( const ustring lhs,
const T &  rhs 
)
related

◆ operator<=() [2/2]

bool operator<= ( UStringView  lhs,
const ustring rhs 
)
related

◆ operator==() [1/2]

template <typename T , typename = std::enable_if_t<!std::is_base_of_v<ustring, T>>>
bool operator== ( const ustring lhs,
const T &  rhs 
)
related

◆ operator==() [2/2]

bool operator== ( UStringView  lhs,
const ustring rhs 
)
related

◆ operator>() [1/2]

template <typename T , typename = std::enable_if_t<!std::is_base_of_v<ustring, T>>>
bool operator> ( const ustring lhs,
const T &  rhs 
)
related

◆ operator>() [2/2]

bool operator> ( UStringView  lhs,
const ustring rhs 
)
related

◆ operator>=() [1/2]

template <typename T , typename = std::enable_if_t<!std::is_base_of_v<ustring, T>>>
bool operator>= ( const ustring lhs,
const T &  rhs 
)
related

◆ operator>=() [2/2]

bool operator>= ( UStringView  lhs,
const ustring rhs 
)
related

◆ operator>>() [1/2]

std::istream & operator>> ( std::istream is,
Glib::ustring utf8_string 
)
related

Stream input operator.

Exceptions
Glib::ConvertError

◆ operator>>() [2/2]

std::wistream & operator>> ( std::wistream is,
ustring utf8_string 
)
related

Wide stream input operator.

Exceptions
Glib::ConvertErrorGLIBMM_API

◆ swap()

void swap ( ustring lhs,
ustring rhs 
)
related

Member Data Documentation

◆ npos

const size_type Glib::ustring::npos = std::string::npos
static