gtkmm  4.9.2
Public Types | Public Member Functions | Static Public Member Functions | Protected Member Functions | Related Functions | List of all members
Gtk::Application Class Reference

Application class. More...

#include <gtkmm/application.h>

Inherits Gio::Application.

Public Types

enum class  InhibitFlags {
  LOGOUT = (1 << 0) ,
  SWITCH = (1 << 1) ,
  SUSPEND = (1 << 2) ,
  IDLE = (1 << 3)
}
 Types of user actions that may be blocked by Gtk::Application. More...
 

Public Member Functions

 Application (Application && src) noexcept
 
Applicationoperator= (Application && src) noexcept
 
 ~Application () noexcept override
 
GtkApplication * gobj ()
 Provides access to the underlying C GObject. More...
 
const GtkApplication * gobj () const
 Provides access to the underlying C GObject. More...
 
GtkApplication * gobj_copy ()
 Provides access to the underlying C instance. The caller is responsible for unrefing it. Use when directly setting fields in structs. More...
 
std::vector< Window * > get_windows ()
 Gets a list of the Gtk::Window instances associated with application. More...
 
std::vector< const Window * > get_windows () const
 Gets a list of the Gtk::Window instances associated with application. More...
 
void add_window (Window & window)
 Adds a window to the Gtk::Application. More...
 
void remove_window (Window & window)
 Remove a window from application. More...
 
int run (int argc, char ** argv)
 Starts the application. More...
 
int run ()
 Starts the application. More...
 
template<typename T_Window , typename... T_Args>
int make_window_and_run (int argc, char ** argv, T_Args &&... args)
 Starts the application, creates and presents a window. More...
 
Windowget_run_window ()
 Get the window, constructed by make_window_and_run(). More...
 
const Windowget_run_window () const
 Get the window, constructed by make_window_and_run(). More...
 
Glib::RefPtr< Gio::MenuModel > get_menubar ()
 Returns the menu model that has been set with set_menubar(). More...
 
Glib::RefPtr< const Gio::MenuModel > get_menubar () const
 Returns the menu model that has been set with set_menubar(). More...
 
void set_menubar (const Glib::RefPtr< Gio::MenuModel > & menubar)
 Sets or unsets the menubar for windows of application. More...
 
guint inhibit (Window & window, InhibitFlags flags, const Glib::ustring & reason)
 Inform the session manager that certain types of actions should be inhibited. More...
 
void uninhibit (guint cookie)
 Removes an inhibitor that has been previously established. More...
 
Windowget_window_by_id (guint id)
 Returns the Gtk::ApplicationWindow with the given ID. More...
 
const Windowget_window_by_id (guint id) const
 Returns the Gtk::ApplicationWindow with the given ID. More...
 
Windowget_active_window ()
 Gets the “active” window for the application. More...
 
const Windowget_active_window () const
 Gets the “active” window for the application. More...
 
std::vector< Glib::ustring > list_action_descriptions () const
 Lists the detailed action names which have associated accelerators. More...
 
std::vector< Glib::ustring > get_accels_for_action (const Glib::ustring & detailed_action_name) const
 Gets the accelerators that are currently associated with the given action. More...
 
std::vector< Glib::ustring > get_actions_for_accel (const Glib::ustring & accel) const
 Returns the list of actions (possibly empty) that accel maps to. More...
 
void set_accels_for_action (const Glib::ustring & detailed_action_name, const std::vector< Glib::ustring > & accels)
 Sets zero or more keyboard accelerators that will trigger the given action. More...
 
void set_accel_for_action (const Glib::ustring & detailed_action_name, const Glib::ustring & accel)
 Sets a keyboard accelerator that will trigger the given action. More...
 
void unset_accels_for_action (const Glib::ustring & detailed_action_name)
 Unsets a keyboard accelerator that will trigger the given action. More...
 
Glib::RefPtr< Gio::Menu > get_menu_by_id (const Glib::ustring & id)
 Gets a menu from automatically loaded resources. More...
 
Glib::RefPtr< const Gio::Menu > get_menu_by_id (const Glib::ustring & id) const
 Gets a menu from automatically loaded resources. More...
 
Glib::PropertyProxy< Glib::RefPtr< Gio::MenuModel > > property_menubar ()
 The Gio::MenuModel to be used for the application's menu bar. More...
 
Glib::PropertyProxy_ReadOnly< Glib::RefPtr< Gio::MenuModel > > property_menubar () const
 The Gio::MenuModel to be used for the application's menu bar. More...
 
Glib::PropertyProxy< bool > property_register_session ()
 Set this property to true to register with the session manager. More...
 
Glib::PropertyProxy_ReadOnly< bool > property_register_session () const
 Set this property to true to register with the session manager. More...
 
Glib::PropertyProxy_ReadOnly< bool > property_screensaver_active () const
 This property is true if GTK believes that the screensaver is currently active. More...
 
Glib::PropertyProxy_ReadOnly< Window * > property_active_window () const
 The currently focused window of the application. More...
 
Glib::SignalProxy< void(Window *)> signal_window_added ()
 
Glib::SignalProxy< void(Window *)> signal_window_removed ()
 
Glib::SignalProxy< void()> signal_query_end ()
 

Static Public Member Functions

static GType get_type ()
 Get the GType for this class, for use with the underlying GObject type system. More...
 
static Glib::RefPtr< Applicationcreate (const Glib::ustring & application_id={}, Gio::Application::Flags flags=Gio::Application::Flags::NONE)
 Creates a new Application instance. More...
 

Protected Member Functions

 Application (const Glib::ustring & application_id={}, Gio::Application::Flags flags=Gio::Application::Flags::NONE)
 Creates a new Application instance. More...
 
virtual void on_window_added (Window * window)
 This is a default handler for the signal signal_window_added(). More...
 
virtual void on_window_removed (Window * window)
 This is a default handler for the signal signal_window_removed(). More...
 

Related Functions

(Note that these are not member functions.)

Glib::RefPtr< Gtk::Applicationwrap (GtkApplication * object, bool take_copy=false)
 A Glib::wrap() method for this object. More...
 

Detailed Description

Application class.

The Gtk::Application class handles many important aspects of a GTK+ application in a convenient fashion, without enforcing a one-size-fits-all application model.

Currently, Gtk::Application handles GTK and gtkmm initialization, application uniqueness, session management, provides some basic scriptability and desktop shell integration by exporting actions and menus, and manages a list of toplevel windows whose life-cycle is automatically tied to the life-cycle of your application.

While Gtk::Application works fine with plain Gtk::Windows, it is recommended to use it together with Gtk::ApplicationWindow.

When GDK threads are enabled, Gtk::Application will acquire the GDK lock when invoking actions that arrive from other processes. The GDK lock is not touched for local action invocations. In order to have actions invoked in a predictable context it is therefore recommended that the GDK lock be held while invoking actions locally with Gio::ActionGroup::activate_action(). The same applies to actions associated with Gtk::ApplicationWindow and to the Gio::Application::activate() and Gio::Application::open() methods.

To specify a menubar that will be shown by Gtk::ApplicationWindows, use set_menubar(). Use the base Gio::ActionMap interface to add actions, to respond to the user selecting these menu items.

Gtk::Application optionally registers with a session manager of the users session (if you set the register-session property) and offers various functionality related to the session life-cycle.

An application can block various ways to end the session with the inhibit() method. Typical use cases for this kind of inhibiting are long-running, uninterruptible operations, such as burning a CD or performing a disk backup. The session manager may not honor the inhibitor, but it can be expected to inform the user about the negative consequences of ending the session while inhibitors are present.

Note
Most widgets can't safely be created before the application has been registered (Gio::Application::register_application() called) or activated (Gio::Application::signal_activate() emitted). They can't safely be deleted after run() or make_window_and_run() returns.
Since gtkmm 3.4:

Constructor & Destructor Documentation

◆ Application() [1/2]

Gtk::Application::Application ( Application &&  src)
noexcept

◆ ~Application()

Gtk::Application::~Application ( )
overridenoexcept

◆ Application() [2/2]

Gtk::Application::Application ( const Glib::ustring &  application_id = {},
Gio::Application::Flags  flags = Gio::Application::Flags::NONE 
)
explicitprotected

Creates a new Application instance.

This initializes gtkmm (and the GObject type system) for you. The global locale is set as specified by Glib::set_init_to_users_preferred_locale().

If non-empty, the application ID must be valid. See Gio::Application::id_is_valid().

If no application ID is given then some features (most notably application uniqueness) will be disabled. A null application ID is only allowed with gtkmm 3.6 or later.

Parameters
application_idA valid application ID.
flagsThe application flags.
Since gtkmm 3.4:

Member Function Documentation

◆ add_window()

void Gtk::Application::add_window ( Window window)

Adds a window to the Gtk::Application.

If all the windows managed by Gtk::Application are closed (hidden) or removed from the application then the call to run() will return, unless Gio::Application::hold() has been called.

This call is equivalent to calling Gtk::Window::set_application().

Normally, the connection between the application and the window will remain until the window is closed (hidden) or destroyed, but you can explicitly remove it with remove_window().

Note
If you call Gio::Application::quit() while a window is connected to the application, and then return from main() without removing the window from the application, the application's destructor will not be called.
Since gtkmm 3.4:
Parameters
windowA toplevel window to add to the application.

◆ create()

static Glib::RefPtr<Application> Gtk::Application::create ( const Glib::ustring &  application_id = {},
Gio::Application::Flags  flags = Gio::Application::Flags::NONE 
)
static

Creates a new Application instance.

This initializes gtkmm (and the GObject type system) for you. The global locale is set as specified by Glib::set_init_to_users_preferred_locale().

If non-empty, the application ID must be valid. See Gio::Application::id_is_valid().

If no application ID is given then some features (most notably application uniqueness) will be disabled. A null application ID is only allowed with gtkmm 3.6 or later.

Parameters
application_idA valid application ID.
flagsThe application flags.
Since gtkmm 3.4:

◆ get_accels_for_action()

std::vector<Glib::ustring> Gtk::Application::get_accels_for_action ( const Glib::ustring &  detailed_action_name) const

Gets the accelerators that are currently associated with the given action.

Parameters
detailed_action_nameA detailed action name, specifying an action and target to obtain accelerators for.
Returns
Accelerators for detailed_action_name.

◆ get_actions_for_accel()

std::vector<Glib::ustring> Gtk::Application::get_actions_for_accel ( const Glib::ustring &  accel) const

Returns the list of actions (possibly empty) that accel maps to.

Each item in the list is a detailed action name in the usual form.

This might be useful to discover if an accel already exists in order to prevent installation of a conflicting accelerator (from an accelerator editor or a plugin system, for example). Note that having more than one action per accelerator may not be a bad thing and might make sense in cases where the actions never appear in the same context.

In case there are no actions for a given accelerator, an empty array is returned. nullptr is never returned.

It is a programmer error to pass an invalid accelerator string.

If you are unsure, check it with gtk_accelerator_parse() first.

Parameters
accelAn accelerator that can be parsed by gtk_accelerator_parse().
Returns
A nullptr-terminated array of actions for accel.

◆ get_active_window() [1/2]

Window* Gtk::Application::get_active_window ( )

Gets the “active” window for the application.

The active window is the one that was most recently focused (within the application). This window may not have the focus at the moment if another application has it — this is just the most recently-focused window within this application.

Returns
The active window.

◆ get_active_window() [2/2]

const Window* Gtk::Application::get_active_window ( ) const

Gets the “active” window for the application.

The active window is the one that was most recently focused (within the application). This window may not have the focus at the moment if another application has it — this is just the most recently-focused window within this application.

Returns
The active window.

◆ get_menu_by_id() [1/2]

Glib::RefPtr<Gio::Menu> Gtk::Application::get_menu_by_id ( const Glib::ustring &  id)

Gets a menu from automatically loaded resources.

See the section on Automatic resources for more information.

Parameters
idThe id of the menu to look up.
Returns
Gets the menu with the given id from the automatically loaded resources.

◆ get_menu_by_id() [2/2]

Glib::RefPtr<const Gio::Menu> Gtk::Application::get_menu_by_id ( const Glib::ustring &  id) const

Gets a menu from automatically loaded resources.

See the section on Automatic resources for more information.

Parameters
idThe id of the menu to look up.
Returns
Gets the menu with the given id from the automatically loaded resources.

◆ get_menubar() [1/2]

Glib::RefPtr<Gio::MenuModel> Gtk::Application::get_menubar ( )

Returns the menu model that has been set with set_menubar().

Returns
The menubar for windows of application.

◆ get_menubar() [2/2]

Glib::RefPtr<const Gio::MenuModel> Gtk::Application::get_menubar ( ) const

Returns the menu model that has been set with set_menubar().

Returns
The menubar for windows of application.

◆ get_run_window() [1/2]

Window* Gtk::Application::get_run_window ( )
inline

Get the window, constructed by make_window_and_run().

◆ get_run_window() [2/2]

const Window* Gtk::Application::get_run_window ( ) const
inline

Get the window, constructed by make_window_and_run().

◆ get_type()

static GType Gtk::Application::get_type ( )
static

Get the GType for this class, for use with the underlying GObject type system.

◆ get_window_by_id() [1/2]

Window* Gtk::Application::get_window_by_id ( guint  id)

Returns the Gtk::ApplicationWindow with the given ID.

The ID of a Gtk::ApplicationWindow can be retrieved with Gtk::ApplicationWindow::get_id().

Parameters
idAn identifier number.
Returns
The window for the given id.

◆ get_window_by_id() [2/2]

const Window* Gtk::Application::get_window_by_id ( guint  id) const

Returns the Gtk::ApplicationWindow with the given ID.

The ID of a Gtk::ApplicationWindow can be retrieved with Gtk::ApplicationWindow::get_id().

Parameters
idAn identifier number.
Returns
The window for the given id.

◆ get_windows() [1/2]

std::vector<Window*> Gtk::Application::get_windows ( )

Gets a list of the Gtk::Window instances associated with application.

The list is sorted by most recently focused window, such that the first element is the currently focused window. (Useful for choosing a parent for a transient window.)

The list that is returned should not be modified in any way. It will only remain valid until the next focus change or window creation or deletion.

Returns
A GList of Gtk::Window instances.

◆ get_windows() [2/2]

std::vector<const Window*> Gtk::Application::get_windows ( ) const

Gets a list of the Gtk::Window instances associated with application.

The list is sorted by most recently focused window, such that the first element is the currently focused window. (Useful for choosing a parent for a transient window.)

The list that is returned should not be modified in any way. It will only remain valid until the next focus change or window creation or deletion.

Returns
A GList of Gtk::Window instances.

◆ gobj() [1/2]

GtkApplication* Gtk::Application::gobj ( )
inline

Provides access to the underlying C GObject.

◆ gobj() [2/2]

const GtkApplication* Gtk::Application::gobj ( ) const
inline

Provides access to the underlying C GObject.

◆ gobj_copy()

GtkApplication* Gtk::Application::gobj_copy ( )

Provides access to the underlying C instance. The caller is responsible for unrefing it. Use when directly setting fields in structs.

◆ inhibit()

guint Gtk::Application::inhibit ( Window window,
InhibitFlags  flags,
const Glib::ustring &  reason 
)

Inform the session manager that certain types of actions should be inhibited.

This is not guaranteed to work on all platforms and for all types of actions.

Applications should invoke this method when they begin an operation that should not be interrupted, such as creating a CD or DVD. The types of actions that may be blocked are specified by the flags parameter. When the application completes the operation it should call uninhibit() to remove the inhibitor. Note that an application can have multiple inhibitors, and all of them must be individually removed. Inhibitors are also cleared when the application exits.

Applications should not expect that they will always be able to block the action. In most cases, users will be given the option to force the action to take place.

The reason message should be short and to the point.

If window is given, the session manager may point the user to this window to find out more about why the action is inhibited.

Parameters
windowA Gtk::Window.
flagsWhat types of actions should be inhibited.
reasonA short, human-readable string that explains why these operations are inhibited.
Returns
A non-zero cookie that is used to uniquely identify this request. It should be used as an argument to uninhibit() in order to remove the request. If the platform does not support inhibiting or the request failed for some reason, 0 is returned.

◆ list_action_descriptions()

std::vector<Glib::ustring> Gtk::Application::list_action_descriptions ( ) const

Lists the detailed action names which have associated accelerators.

See set_accels_for_action().

Returns
The detailed action names.

◆ make_window_and_run()

template <typename T_Window , typename... T_Args>
int Gtk::Application::make_window_and_run ( int  argc,
char **  argv,
T_Args &&...  args 
)

Starts the application, creates and presents a window.

A window of type T_Window is constructed and added to the application in a signal_activate() handler. The window is deleted when it is hidden or removed from the application. The method returns when the window is hidden, unless other windows have been added but not removed.

The window is only constructed on the first activate signal. Any activations thereafter only cause the window to be raised.

Template Parameters
T_WindowThe type of window to present. Must be Gtk::Window or a class type that inherits from Gtk::Window.
Parameters
argcThe argc from main() (or 0 if argv is nullptr).
argvThe argv from main(), or nullptr.
argsArguments to T_Window's constructor, if any.
Returns
The exit status.
See also
Gio::Application::run()
Since gtkmm 3.98:

◆ on_window_added()

virtual void Gtk::Application::on_window_added ( Window window)
protectedvirtual

This is a default handler for the signal signal_window_added().

◆ on_window_removed()

virtual void Gtk::Application::on_window_removed ( Window window)
protectedvirtual

This is a default handler for the signal signal_window_removed().

◆ operator=()

Application& Gtk::Application::operator= ( Application &&  src)
noexcept

◆ property_active_window()

Glib::PropertyProxy_ReadOnly< Window* > Gtk::Application::property_active_window ( ) const

The currently focused window of the application.

Returns
A PropertyProxy_ReadOnly that allows you to get the value of the property, or receive notification when the value of the property changes.

◆ property_menubar() [1/2]

Glib::PropertyProxy< Glib::RefPtr<Gio::MenuModel> > Gtk::Application::property_menubar ( )

The Gio::MenuModel to be used for the application's menu bar.

Returns
A PropertyProxy that allows you to get or set the value of the property, or receive notification when the value of the property changes.

◆ property_menubar() [2/2]

Glib::PropertyProxy_ReadOnly< Glib::RefPtr<Gio::MenuModel> > Gtk::Application::property_menubar ( ) const

The Gio::MenuModel to be used for the application's menu bar.

Returns
A PropertyProxy_ReadOnly that allows you to get the value of the property, or receive notification when the value of the property changes.

◆ property_register_session() [1/2]

Glib::PropertyProxy< bool > Gtk::Application::property_register_session ( )

Set this property to true to register with the session manager.

This will make GTK track the session state (such as the property_screensaver_active() property).

Default value: false

Returns
A PropertyProxy that allows you to get or set the value of the property, or receive notification when the value of the property changes.

◆ property_register_session() [2/2]

Glib::PropertyProxy_ReadOnly< bool > Gtk::Application::property_register_session ( ) const

Set this property to true to register with the session manager.

This will make GTK track the session state (such as the property_screensaver_active() property).

Default value: false

Returns
A PropertyProxy_ReadOnly that allows you to get the value of the property, or receive notification when the value of the property changes.

◆ property_screensaver_active()

Glib::PropertyProxy_ReadOnly< bool > Gtk::Application::property_screensaver_active ( ) const

This property is true if GTK believes that the screensaver is currently active.

GTK only tracks session state (including this) when property_register_session() is set to true.

Tracking the screensaver state is currently only supported on Linux.

Since gtkmm 3.94:

Default value: false

Returns
A PropertyProxy_ReadOnly that allows you to get the value of the property, or receive notification when the value of the property changes.

◆ remove_window()

void Gtk::Application::remove_window ( Window window)

Remove a window from application.

If window belongs to application then this call is equivalent to setting the Gtk::Window::property_application() property of window to nullptr.

The application may stop running as a result of a call to this function, if window was the last window of the application.

Parameters
windowA Gtk::Window.

◆ run() [1/2]

int Gtk::Application::run ( )

Starts the application.

Returns
The exit status.
See also
Gio::Application::run()
Since gtkmm 3.4:

◆ run() [2/2]

int Gtk::Application::run ( int  argc,
char **  argv 
)

Starts the application.

Parameters
argcThe argc from main() (or 0 if argv is nullptr).
argvThe argv from main(), or nullptr.
Returns
The exit status.
See also
Gio::Application::run()
Since gtkmm 3.4:

◆ set_accel_for_action()

void Gtk::Application::set_accel_for_action ( const Glib::ustring &  detailed_action_name,
const Glib::ustring &  accel 
)

Sets a keyboard accelerator that will trigger the given action.

It will be the primary accelerator, which may be displayed in the UI.

See unset_accels_for_action().

Parameters
detailed_action_nameA detailed action name, specifying an action and target to associate accelerators with.
accelAn accelerator in the format understood by gtk_accelerator_parse().
Since gtkmm 3.12:

◆ set_accels_for_action()

void Gtk::Application::set_accels_for_action ( const Glib::ustring &  detailed_action_name,
const std::vector< Glib::ustring > &  accels 
)

Sets zero or more keyboard accelerators that will trigger the given action.

The first item in accels will be the primary accelerator, which may be displayed in the UI.

To remove all accelerators for an action, use an empty, zero-terminated array for accels.

For the detailed_action_name, see Glib::action_parse_detailed_name() and Glib::action_print_detailed_name().

Parameters
detailed_action_nameA detailed action name, specifying an action and target to associate accelerators with.
accelsA list of accelerators in the format understood by gtk_accelerator_parse().

◆ set_menubar()

void Gtk::Application::set_menubar ( const Glib::RefPtr< Gio::MenuModel > &  menubar)

Sets or unsets the menubar for windows of application.

This is a menubar in the traditional sense.

This can only be done in the primary instance of the application, after it has been registered. GApplication::startup is a good place to call this.

Depending on the desktop environment, this may appear at the top of each window, or at the top of the screen. In some environments, if both the application menu and the menubar are set, the application menu will be presented as if it were the first item of the menubar. Other environments treat the two as completely separate — for example, the application menu may be rendered by the desktop shell while the menubar (if set) remains in each individual window.

Use the base Gio::ActionMap interface to add actions, to respond to the user selecting these menu items.

Parameters
menubarA Gio::MenuModel.

◆ signal_query_end()

Glib::SignalProxy<void()> Gtk::Application::signal_query_end ( )
Slot Prototype:
void on_my_query_end()

Flags: Run First

Emitted when the session manager is about to end the session.

This signal is only emitted if property_register_session() is true. Applications can connect to this signal and call Gtk::Application::inhibit() with Gtk::Application::InhibitFlags::LOGOUT to delay the end of the session until state has been saved.

◆ signal_window_added()

Glib::SignalProxy<void(Window*)> Gtk::Application::signal_window_added ( )
Slot Prototype:
void on_my_window_added(Window* window)

Flags: Run First

Emitted when a Gtk::Window is added to application through Gtk::Application::add_window().

Parameters
windowThe newly-added Gtk::Window.

◆ signal_window_removed()

Glib::SignalProxy<void(Window*)> Gtk::Application::signal_window_removed ( )
Slot Prototype:
void on_my_window_removed(Window* window)

Flags: Run First

Emitted when a Gtk::Window is removed from application.

This can happen as a side-effect of the window being destroyed or explicitly through Gtk::Application::remove_window().

Parameters
windowThe Gtk::Window that is being removed.

◆ uninhibit()

void Gtk::Application::uninhibit ( guint  cookie)

Removes an inhibitor that has been previously established.

See inhibit().

Inhibitors are also cleared when the application exits.

Parameters
cookieA cookie that was returned by inhibit().

◆ unset_accels_for_action()

void Gtk::Application::unset_accels_for_action ( const Glib::ustring &  detailed_action_name)

Unsets a keyboard accelerator that will trigger the given action.

See set_accels_for_action() and set_accel_for_action().

Parameters
detailed_action_nameA detailed action name, specifying an action and target to associate accelerators with.
Since gtkmm 3.12:

Friends And Related Function Documentation

◆ wrap()

Glib::RefPtr< Gtk::Application > wrap ( GtkApplication *  object,
bool  take_copy = false 
)
related

A Glib::wrap() method for this object.

Parameters
objectThe C instance.
take_copyFalse if the result should take ownership of the C instance. True if it should take a new copy or ref.
Returns
A C++ instance that wraps this C instance.