Migrating to Breakpoints

Migrating to Breakpoints

Libadwaita 1.4 introduces AdwBreakpoint and new adaptive widgets that can integrate with it, while deprecating the old widgets.

Start Using AdwToolbarView

AdwToolbarView is a widget that can be used instead of GtkBox for widgets like AdwHeaderBar. It’s required to have the correct header bar style, especially in sidebars.

Replace your GtkBox with AdwToolbarView and add your header bar and other toolbars (e.g. GtkSearchBar or AdwTabBar) as top bars using adw_toolbar_view_add_top_bar() or <child type="top"> in a UI file.

If you have any toolbars at the bottom of the window, e.g. GtkActionBar or AdwViewSwitcherBar, add them using adw_toolbar_view_add_bottom_bar() or <child type="bottom">.

Finally, use AdwToolbarView:content to set the content widget. Unlike in GtkBox, there’s no need to set GtkWidget:vexpand to TRUE, so that can be removed.

Example:

<object class="GtkBox">
  <property name="orientation">vertical</property>
  <child>
    <object class="AdwHeaderBar">
      <!-- ... -->
    </object>
  </child>
  <child>
    <object class="...">
      <property name="vexpand">True</property>
      <!-- ... -->
    </object>
  </child>
</object>

becomes this:

<object class="AdwToolbarView">
  <child type="top">
    <object class="AdwHeaderBar">
      <!-- ... -->
    </object>
  </child>
  <property name="content">
    <object class="...">
      <!-- ... -->
    </object>
  </property>
</object>

AdwToolbarView defaults to flat header bars, replacing the .flat style class. To use a raised style, set the AdwToolbarView:top-bar-style and/or AdwToolbarView:bottom-bar-style properties to ADW_TOOLBAR_RAISED.

Subsequent sections will assume that you’re using AdwToolbarView.

Start Using AdwWindow or AdwApplicationWindow

All of the new adaptive widgets require using breakpoints, which can only be added into AdwWindow or AdwApplicationWindow. Alternatively, they can be added into AdwBreakpointBin when only a specific part of the window needs to be adaptive.

To migrate from GtkWindow to AdwWindow, or from GtkApplicationWindow to AdwApplicationWindow, put your header bar and window content into an AdwToolbarView and set that as the window’s content.

Example:

<object class="GtkWindow">
  <property name="titlebar">
    <!-- titlebar -->
  </property>
  <property name="child">
    <!-- content -->
  </property>
</object>

becomes this:

<object class="AdwWindow">
  <property name="content">
    <object class="AdwToolbarView">
      <child type="top">
        <!-- titlebar -->
      </child>
      <property name="content">
        <!-- content -->
    </object>
  </property>
</object>

Using breakpoints also requires the window to have a minimum size. It can be set using gtk_widget_set_size_request(), or the GtkWidget:width-request and GtkWidget:height-request properties.

The target window size that would work on phones both in portrait and landscape orientations is 360x294 pixels:

<object class="AdwWindow">
  <property name="width-request">360</property>
  <property name="height-request">294</property>
  <property name="content">
    <object class="AdwToolbarView">
      <child type="top">
        <!-- titlebar -->
      </child>
      <property name="content">
        <!-- content -->
    </object>
  </property>
</object>

The child widget must completely fit into your minimum size. If it doesn’t, then as soon as you add a breakpoint and resize the window to that size, the contents will overflow and a warning message will be printed.

When checking if the contents fit, consider translations and text scale factor changes. Make sure to leave enough space for text labels, and enable ellipsizing or wrapping if they might not fit.

For GtkLabel this can be done via GtkLabel:ellipsize, or via GtkLabel:wrap together with GtkLabel:wrap-mode.

For buttons, use GtkButton:can-shrink, GtkMenuButton:can-shrink, AdwSplitButton:can-shrink, or AdwButtonContent:can-shrink.

Subsequent sections will assume that you’re using AdwWindow or AdwApplicationWindow.

Start using AdwHeaderBar

AdwHeaderBar provides additional integration with some of the widgets listed below, compared to GtkHeaderBar, and can make them noticeably easier to use.

<object class="GtkHeaderBar">
  <property name="show-title-buttons">False</property>
</object>

Replace your header bar with AdwHeaderBar, and GtkHeaderBar:show-title-buttons with a combination of AdwHeaderBar:show-start-title-buttons and AdwHeaderBar:show-end-title-buttons.

<object class="AdwHeaderBar">
  <property name="show-start-title-buttons">False</property>
  <property name="show-end-title-buttons">False</property>
</object>

Replace AdwLeaflet

AdwLeaflet can be replaced by either AdwNavigationView or AdwNavigationSplitView, depending on how it’s used.

Leaflets that have their AdwLeaflet:can-unfold property set to FALSE can be replaced using AdwNavigationView.

A typical use case with two pages looks as follows:

<object class="AdwLeaflet">
  <property name="can-unfold">False</property>
  <property name="can-navigate-back">True</property>
  <child>
    <object class="AdwLeafletPage">
      <property name="name">page-1</property>
      <property name="child">
        <object class="AdwToolbarView">
          <child type="top">
            <object class="GtkHeaderBar">
              <property name="title-widget">
                <object class="AdwWindowTitle">
                  <property name="title" translatable="yes">Page 1</property>
                </object>
              </property>
            </object>
          </child>
          <property name="content">
            <!-- ... -->
          </property>
        </object>
      </property>
    </object>
  </child>
  <child>
    <object class="AdwLeafletPage">
      <property name="name">page-2</property>
      <property name="child">
        <object class="AdwToolbarView">
          <child type="top">
            <object class="GtkHeaderBar">
              <child type="start">
                <object class="GtkButton">
                  <property name="icon-name">go-previous-symbolic</property>
                  <property name="tooltip-text" translatable="yes">Back</property>
                  <signal name="clicked" handler="back_clicked_cb" swapped="yes"/>
                </object>
              </child>
              <property name="title-widget">
                <object class="AdwWindowTitle">
                  <property name="title" translatable="yes">Page 2</property>
                </object>
              </property>
            </object>
          </child>
          <property name="content">
            <!-- ... -->
          </property>
        </object>
      </property>
    </object>
  </child>
</object>

Replace the leaflet with AdwNavigationView and AdwLeafletPage with AdwNavigationPage. AdwNavigationView requires all children to be AdwNavigationPage, so if you didn’t explicitly specify AdwLeafletPage, wrap your child widgets into AdwNavigationPage instead.

Use AdwNavigationPage:title instead of manually adding titles to your header bars. Even if you need a subtitle, AdwNavigationPage:title should always be set to something meaningful, as it will be used as a tooltip for the back button and label in its context menu, as well as read out by the screen reader.

Replace AdwLeafletPage:name with AdwNavigationPage:tag and remove the back button as AdwHeaderBar already provides one. If back buttons are unwanted, set AdwHeaderBar:show-back-button on your header bar to FALSE.

AdwNavigationView always has back gestures and shortcuts enabled. To disable them (as well as the back button) on a specific page, set its AdwNavigationPage:can-pop property to FALSE.

If you’re using GtkHeaderBar, replace it with AdwHeaderBar as well:

<object class="AdwNavigationView">
  <child>
    <object class="AdwNavigationPage">
      <property name="title" translatable="yes">Page 1</property>
      <property name="tag">page-1</property>
      <property name="child">
        <object class="AdwToolbarView">
          <child type="top">
            <object class="AdwHeaderBar"/>
          </child>
          <property name="content">
            <!-- ... -->
          </property>
        </object>
      </property>
    </object>
  </child>
  <child>
    <object class="AdwNavigationPage">
      <property name="title" translatable="yes">Page 2</property>
      <property name="tag">page-2</property>
      <property name="child">
        <object class="AdwToolbarView">
          <child type="top">
            <object class="AdwHeaderBar"/>
          </child>
          <property name="content">
            <!-- ... -->
          </property>
        </object>
      </property>
    </object>
  </child>
</object>

Replace adw_leaflet_navigate() calls with adw_navigation_view_push() for ADW_NAVIGATION_DIRECTION_FORWARD and adw_navigation_view_pop() for ADW_NAVIGATION_DIRECTION_BACK. It’s also possible to push a page using the navigation.push action and the page’s tag as parameter, or pop the visible page using the navigation.pop action.

If you were using nested AdwLeaflets or GtkStack with pages inside it to arrange a non-linear navigation structure (for example, page 1 that can lead to page 2 and page 3, both of which lead back to page 1), AdwNavigationView can support that directly.

To replace AdwLeaflet:can-navigate-forward, connect to the AdwNavigationView::get-next-page signal.

Leaflets that implement adaptive sidebar layouts can be replaced with AdwNavigationSplitView.

A typical use case looks as follows:

<object class="AdwWindow">
  <property name="content">
    <object class="AdwLeaflet" id="leaflet">
      <property name="can-navigate-back">True</property>
      <child>
        <object class="AdwToolbarView">
          <child type="top">
            <object class="AdwHeaderBar">
              <property name="show-end-title-buttons"
                              bind-object="leaflet"
                              bind-property="folded"
                              bind-flags="sync-create"/>
              <property name="title-widget">
                <object class="AdwWindowTitle">
                  <property name="title" translatable="yes">Sidebar</property>
                </object>
              </property>
            </object>
          </child>
          <property name="content">
            <!-- sidebar -->
          </property>
        </object>
      </child>
      <child>
        <object class="AdwLeafletPage">
          <property name="navigatable">False</property>
          <property name="child">
            <object class="GtkSeparator"/>
          </property>
        </object>
      </child>
      <child>
        <object class="AdwToolbarView">
          <property name="hexpand">True</property>
          <child type="top">
            <object class="AdwHeaderBar">
              <property name="show-start-title-buttons"
                              bind-object="leaflet"
                              bind-property="folded"
                              bind-flags="sync-create"/>
              <child type="start">
                <object class="GtkButton">
                  <property name="visible"
                                  bind-object="leaflet"
                                  bind-property="folded"
                                  bind-flags="sync-create"/>
                  <property name="icon-name">go-previous-symbolic</property>
                </object>
              </child>
              <property name="title-widget">
                <object class="AdwWindowTitle">
                  <property name="title" translatable="yes">Content</property>
                </object>
              </property>
            </object>
          </child>
          <property name="content">
            <!-- content -->
          </property>
        </object>
      </child>
    </object>
  </property>
</object>

Replace AdwLeaflet with AdwNavigationSplitView and AdwLeafletPage with AdwNavigationPage. AdwNavigationSplitView requires all children to be AdwNavigationPage, so if you didn’t explicitly specify AdwLeafletPage, wrap your child widgets into AdwNavigationPage instead.

Remove the separator child, AdwNavigationSplitView provides a separator as part of its styling.

Stop binding window button visibility to the leaflet’s folded state, as AdwHeaderBar handles that automatically when inside AdwNavigationSplitView.

Use AdwNavigationPage:title instead of manually adding titles to your header bars. Even if you need a subtitle, AdwNavigationPage:title should always be set to something meaningful, as it will be used as a tooltip for the back button, as well as read out by the screen reader.

Replace AdwLeafletPage:name with AdwNavigationPage:tag and remove the back button from your content header bar, as AdwHeaderBar already provides one. If back buttons are unwanted, set AdwHeaderBar:show-back-button on your header bar to FALSE.

It’s also possible to disable the back button, as well as related shortcuts and actions on the content page by setting its AdwNavigationPage:can-pop property to FALSE.

Add a breakpoint with a max-width condition to your window. To accommodate the Large Text setting, the width value should be using sp unit, e.g. 400sp. Add a setter to your breakpoint, setting the AdwNavigationSplitView:collapsed property to TRUE.

<object class="AdwWindow">
  <child>
    <object class="AdwBreakpoint">
      <condition>max-width: 400sp</condition>
      <setter object="split_view" property="collapsed">True</setter>
    </object>
  </child>
  <property name="content">
    <object class="AdwNavigationSplitView" id="split_view">
      <property name="sidebar">
        <object class="AdwNavigationPage">
          <property name="title" translatable="yes">Sidebar</property>
          <property name="child">
            <object class="AdwToolbarView">
              <child type="top">
                <object class="AdwHeaderBar"/>
              </child>
              <property name="content">
                <!-- sidebar -->
              </property>
            </object>
          </property>
        </object>
      </property>
      <property name="content">
        <object class="AdwNavigationPage">
          <property name="title" translatable="yes">Content</property>
          <property name="child">
            <object class="AdwToolbarView">
              <child type="top">
                <object class="AdwHeaderBar"/>
              </child>
              <property name="content">
                <!-- content -->
              </property>
            </object>
          </property>
        </object>
      </property>
    </object>
  </property>
</object>

Replace AdwLeaflet:visible-child and/or AdwLeaflet:visible-child-name uses with AdwNavigationSplitView:show-content. It’s also possible to show content using using the navigation.push action with the content page’s tag as a parameter, or show sidebar using the navigation.pop action.

By default, AdwNavigationSplitView will dynamically resize the sidebar depending on its own width. If that behavior is unwanted, set AdwNavigationSplitView:min-sidebar-width and AdwNavigationSplitView:max-sidebar-width to 0.

For triple-pane layouts, see the adaptive layouts page.

Other Uses

Other uses of AdwLeaflet, e.g. in vertical orientation, have no direct replacement, but can be replicated using e.g. GtkBox, the GtkWidget:visible property and breakpoints.

Replace AdwFlap

AdwFlap can be used for multiple different things, and is generally replaced with AdwOverlaySplitView. That widget has similar API to AdwFlap and its common uses can be directly replaced.

Utility pane

The main AdwFlap use case is utility panes.

A common case looks as follows:

<object class="AdwWindow">
  <property name="content">
    <object class="AdwToolbarView">
      <property name="top-bar-style">raised</property>
      <child type="top">
        <object class="AdwHeaderBar">
          <object class="GtkToggleButton" id="toggle_pane_button">
            <property name="icon-name">sidebar-show-symbolic</property>
            <property name="active">True</property>
          </object>
        </object>
      </child>
      <property name="content">
        <object class="AdwFlap">
          <property name="reveal-flap"
                    bind-source="toggle_pane_button"
                    bind-property="active"
                    bind-flags="sync-create|bidirectional"/>
          <property name="flap">
            <!-- utility pane -->
          </property>
          <property name="separator">
            <object class="GtkSeparator"/>
          </property>
          <property name="content">
            <!-- main view -->
          </property>
        </object>

      </property>
    </object>
  </property>
</object>

Replace AdwFlap with AdwOverlaySplitView, the flap property with AdwOverlaySplitView:sidebar and the reveal-flap property with AdwOverlaySplitView:show-sidebar.

Remove the separator child, AdwOverlaySplitView provides a separator as part of its styling.

Add an ID to your split view if you’re using UI files.

Add a breakpoint with a max-width condition to your window. To accommodate the Large Text setting, the width value should be using sp unit, e.g. 400sp. Add a setter to your breakpoint, setting the AdwOverlaySplitView:collapsed property to TRUE.

<object class="AdwWindow">
  <child>
    <object class="AdwBreakpoint">
      <condition>max-width: 400sp</condition>
      <setter object="split_view" property="collapsed">True</setter>
    </object>
  </child>
  <property name="content">
    <object class="AdwToolbarView">
      <property name="top-bar-style">raised</property>
      <child type="top">
        <object class="AdwHeaderBar">
          <object class="GtkToggleButton" id="toggle_pane_button">
            <property name="icon-name">sidebar-show-symbolic</property>
            <property name="active">True</property>
          </object>
        </object>
      </child>
      <property name="content">
        <object class="AdwOverlaySplitView" id="split_view">
          <property name="show-sidebar"
                    bind-source="toggle_pane_button"
                    bind-property="active"
                    bind-flags="sync-create|bidirectional"/>
          <property name="sidebar">
            <!-- utility pane -->
          </property>
          <property name="content">
            <!-- main view -->
          </property>
        </object>

      </property>
    </object>
  </property>
</object>

The AdwFlap:locked property can be replaced with AdwOverlaySplitView:pin-sidebar.

Sidebar-style AdwFlap use cases, with split header bars, are handled similarly to utility panes. One additional difference is that, like in AdwNavigationSplitView, AdwHeaderBar can manage window button visibility automatically when using AdwOverlaySplitView, so there’s no need to bind their visibility to the AdwFlap:folded property anymore.

While AdwOverlaySplitView doesn’t require using AdwNavigationPage, it can still be used to provide header bar titles insead of using AdwWindowTitle.

Fullscreen Header Bar

A vertical AdwFlap can also be used to handle header bars in fullscreen, specifically for either overlaying a header bar above content in fullscreen, or showing it next to the content otherwise.

This can be replaced with AdwToolbarView and the AdwToolbarView:extend-content-to-top-edge property.

Other Uses

Other use cases of AdwFlap have no direct replacement but can be replicated using e.g. GtkBox, GtkRevealer, the GtkWidget:visible property, and breakpoints.

Replace AdwViewSwitcherTitle

AdwViewSwitcherTitle can be replaced by using AdwViewSwitcher together with a breakpoint.

A typical AdwViewSwitcherTitle use looks as follows:

<object class="AdwWindow">
  <property name="width-request">360</property>
  <property name="height-request">294</property>
  <property name="content">
    <object class="AdwToolbarView">
      <child type="top">
        <object class="AdwHeaderBar">
          <property name="centering-policy">strict</property>
          <property name="title-widget">
            <object class="AdwViewSwitcherTitle" id="title">
              <property name="stack">stack</property>
              <property name="title" translatable="yes">Title</property>
            </object>
          </property>
        </object>
      </child>
      <property name="content">
        <object class="AdwViewStack" id="stack">
          <!-- ... -->
        </object>
      </property>
      <child type="bottom">
        <object class="AdwViewSwitcherBar">
          <property name="stack">stack</property>
          <property name="reveal"
                    bind-source="title"
                    bind-property="title-visible"
                    bind-flags="sync-create"/>
        </object>
      </child>
    </object>
  </property>
</object>

Replace your AdwViewSwitcherTitle with a regular AdwViewSwitcher and set the ADW_VIEW_SWITCHER_POLICY_WIDE policy on it.

Also remove the AdwViewSwitcherBar:reveal property binding on your switcher bar, and stop setting AdwHeaderBar:centering-policy on your header bar.

Add an ID to your header bar and switcher bar if you’re using UI files.

<object class="AdwHeaderBar" id="header_bar">
  <!-- ... -->
  <property name="title-widget">
    <object class="AdwViewSwitcher">
      <property name="policy">wide</property>
      <property name="stack">stack</property>
    </object>
  </property>
  <!-- ... -->
</object>
<!-- ... -->
<object class="AdwViewSwitcherBar" id="switcher_bar">
  <property name="stack">stack</property>
</object>

Add a breakpoint with a max-width condition to your window. To accommodate the Large Text setting, the width value should be using sp unit.

Recommended width values depending on the number of pages:

  • 2 pages: 400sp
  • 3 pages: 450sp
  • 4 pages: 550sp

You may need to tweak the value to match your application’s layout. It needs to be large enough that the view switcher is not yet ellipsized at that width, but small enough that the view switcher doesn’t move to the bottom yet at common window sizes.

The rest of this section will assume 550sp as the threshold.

Add two setters to your breakpoint, unsetting the header bar’s titlebar widget, and setting the switcher bar’s reveal property to TRUE.

Specify the header bar’s title using GtkWindow:title or AdwNavigationPage:title.

<object class="AdwWindow">
  <property name="title" translatable="yes">Title</property>
  <child>
    <object class="AdwBreakpoint">
      <condition>max-width: 550sp</condition>
      <setter object="header_bar" property="title-widget"/>
      <setter object="switcher_bar" property="reveal">True</setter>
    </object>
  </child>
  <property name="child">
    <object class="AdwToolbarView">
      <child type="top">
        <object class="AdwHeaderBar" id="header_bar">
          <property name="title-widget">
            <object class="AdwViewSwitcher">
              <property name="policy">wide</property>
              <property name="stack">stack</property>
            </object>
          </property>
        </object>
      </child>
      <property name="content">
        <object class="AdwViewStack" id="stack">
          <!-- ... -->
        </object>
      </property>
      <child type="bottom">
        <object class="AdwViewSwitcherBar" id="switcher_bar">
          <property name="stack">stack</property>
        </object>
      </child>
    </object>
  </property>
</object>

Subtitle

If you were using AdwViewSwitcherTitle:subtitle, use a GtkStack containing an AdwViewSwitcher and AdwWindowTitle, and switch the stack’s visible page from your breakpoint.

<object class="AdwWindow">
  <child>
    <object class="AdwBreakpoint">
      <condition>max-width: 550sp</condition>
      <setter object="title_stack" property="visible-child">window_title</property>
      <setter object="switcher_bar" property="reveal">True</property>
    </object>
  </child>
  <property name="child">
    <object class="AdwToolbarView">
      <child type="top">
        <object class="AdwHeaderBar">
          <property name="title-widget">
            <object class="GtkStack" id="title_stack">
              <child>
                <object class="AdwViewSwitcher">
                  <property name="policy">wide</property>
                  <property name="stack">stack</property>
                </object>
              </child>
              <child>
                <object class="AdwWindowTitle" id="window_title">
                  <property name="title" translatable="yes">Title</property>
                  <property name="subtitle" translatable="yes">Subtitle</property>
                </object>
              </child>
            </object>
          </property>
        </object>
      </child>
      <property name="content">
        <object class="AdwViewStack" id="stack">
          <!-- ... -->
        </object>
      </property>
      <child type="bottom">
        <object class="AdwViewSwitcherBar" id="switcher_bar">
          <property name="stack">stack</property>
        </object>
      </child>
    </object>
  </property>
</object>

Replace AdwSqueezer

AdwSqueezer can be replaced with breakpoints.

For example, to migrate the following example:

<object class="AdwSqueezer">
  <property name="homogeneous">False</property>
  <child>
    <object class="GtkBox">
      <property name="spacing">6</property>
      <child>
        <object class="GtkButton">
          <property name="label">Button 1</property>
        </object>
      </child>
      <child>
        <object class="GtkButton">
          <property name="label">Button 2</property>
        </object>
      </child>
    </object>
  </child>
  <child>
    <object class="GtkBox">
      <property name="orientation">vertical</property>
      <property name="spacing">6</property>
      <child>
        <object class="GtkButton">
          <property name="label">Button 1</property>
        </object>
      </child>
      <child>
        <object class="GtkButton">
          <property name="label">Button 2</property>
        </object>
      </child>
    </object>
  </child>
</object>

use a single GtkBox, and a breakpoint toggling the box’s GtkOrientable:orientation property:

<object class="GtkBox" id="box">
  <property name="spacing">6</property>
  <child>
    <object class="GtkButton">
      <property name="label">Button 1</property>
    </object>
  </child>
  <child>
    <object class="GtkButton">
      <property name="label">Button 2</property>
    </object>
  </child>
</object>

<!-- ... -->

<object class="AdwBreakpoint">
  <condition>max-width: 400sp</condition>
  <setter object="box" property="orientation">vertical</property>
</object>

Alternatively, a GtkStack or the GtkWidget:visible property can be used to switch between separate widgets, like in AdwSqueezer.

Migrate AdwPreferencesWindow Subpages

AdwPreferencesWindow can now use AdwNavigationView for its subpages instead of AdwLeaflet. As such, adw_preferences_window_present_subpage() and adw_preferences_window_close_subpage() have been deprecated in favor of adw_preferences_window_push_subpage() and adw_preferences_window_pop_subpage().

Wrap your subpages into AdwNavigationPage, stop setting the header bar titles manually and use AdwNavigationPage:title instead, remove your back buttons if you had any. If back buttons are unwanted, set AdwHeaderBar:show-back-button on your header bar to FALSE.

AdwPreferencesWindow always has back gestures and shortcuts enabled for the new subpage API. To disable them (as well as the back button) on a specific page, set its AdwNavigationPage:can-pop property to FALSE.

Unlike adw_preferences_window_present_subpage(), repeatedly calling adw_preferences_window_push_subpage() with different pages won’t replace the current page, so if you had an AdwLeaflet inside your subpage, you can use adw_preferences_window_push_subpage() directly instead.